CTET EVS: Environmental Movements and Activism

Environmental movements and activism play a crucial role in raising awareness, advocating for change, and protecting the natural environment. The Central Teacher Eligibility Test (CTET) for Environmental Studies (EVS) aims to educate and empower future teachers with the knowledge and skills necessary to incorporate environmental education into the curriculum. This article explores the significance of environmental movements and activism, highlights major movements and activists, examines the impact and achievements of these initiatives, discusses the role of CTET EVS in environmental movements, explores challenges faced by environmental activists, provides strategies for effective activism, and concludes with key takeaways.


Environmental movements and activism have emerged as powerful forces driving change and promoting sustainability. They aim to address pressing environmental issues, such as deforestation, pollution, climate change, and species extinction. These movements are driven by passionate individuals and organizations who strive to protect and preserve the environment for present and future generations.

Definition of CTET EVS

The Central Teacher Eligibility Test (CTET) is a nationally recognized examination in India that assesses the eligibility of candidates to be appointed as teachers in various schools. The Environmental Studies (EVS) section of the CTET focuses on environmental education and its integration into the curriculum. CTET EVS aims to equip teachers with the necessary knowledge and understanding to nurture environmental consciousness among students.

Overview of Environmental Movements

Historical Background

Environmental movements have a rich history that can be traced back to various milestones. One significant event was the creation of national parks and protected areas in the late 19th century, emphasizing the need for conservation and preservation. The emergence of the modern environmental movement gained momentum in the 1960s and 1970s, sparked by concerns over pollution, wildlife conservation, and the impact of industrialization on the environment.

Key Objectives and Principles

Environmental movements and activism operate on key principles such as conservation, sustainable development, and environmental justice. These movements strive to raise awareness, influence policy changes, and foster a collective responsibility towards the environment. The key objectives include advocating for stricter environmental regulations, promoting renewable energy sources, and preserving biodiversity.

Major Environmental Movements and Activism

Chipko Movement

The Chipko Movement, originating in the Indian state of Uttarakhand in the 1970s, was a landmark movement aimed at protecting forests from deforestation and promoting sustainable practices. The movement involved local communities, predominantly women, who hugged trees to prevent them from being felled. This non-violent resistance garnered global attention and led to a broader recognition of the importance of ecological conservation.

Silent Spring Movement

The publication of Rachel Carson’s book, “Silent Spring,” in 1962 was instrumental in igniting the Silent Spring Movement. The book shed light on the harmful effects of pesticides, particularly DDT, on wildlife and human health. It prompted widespread awareness and activism, ultimately leading to the banning of DDT and the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States.


Greenpeace, founded in 1971, is an international environmental organization known for its direct actions and campaigns. The organization focuses on issues such as climate change, deforestation, overfishing, and nuclear disarmament. Greenpeace utilizes peaceful protests, research, and lobbying to raise awareness and promote solutions for a sustainable future.

Extinction Rebellion

Extinction Rebellion (XR) is a global movement that emerged in 2018 with the goal of tackling the climate crisis and biodiversity loss. Through non-violent civil disobedience, XR demands that governments take urgent action to address the ecological emergency. The movement organizes protests, sit-ins, and other forms of direct action to raise awareness and push for change.

Fridays for Future

Fridays for Future is a youth-led movement that originated with Swedish activist Greta Thunberg. The movement gained worldwide attention through Thunberg’s school strikes for climate, where students skipped school to protest government inaction on climate change. Fridays for Future has mobilized millions of young people globally, calling for immediate and ambitious climate action.

Other Notable Movements and Activists

In addition to the aforementioned movements, there are numerous other noteworthy initiatives and activists contributing to environmental causes. Some examples include the Save the Amazon movement, led by indigenous communities and environmental organizations to protect the Amazon rainforest, and Vandana Shiva, an Indian environmentalist and anti-globalization advocate known for her work on seed sovereignty and sustainable agriculture.

Impact and Achievements of Environmental Movements

Environmental movements have yielded significant impact and achievements over the years. They have played a crucial role in shaping environmental policies, raising public awareness, and driving positive change. Some key accomplishments include:

  • Policy Changes and Legislation: Environmental movements have been instrumental in influencing policy changes and the introduction of legislation to protect the environment. Examples include the Clean Air Act in the United States, the Paris Agreement on climate change, and the ban on single-use plastics in various countries.
  • Conservation Efforts and Awareness: Environmental movements have contributed to the establishment of protected areas, wildlife sanctuaries, and national parks. They have also raised awareness about conservation practices, leading to increased public engagement in initiatives such as recycling, waste reduction, and habitat restoration.

Role of CTET EVS in Environmental Movements

CTET EVS plays a vital role in integrating environmental education into the curriculum and nurturing environmental consciousness among students. By equipping future teachers with the necessary knowledge and skills, CTET EVS ensures that environmental issues are addressed effectively in educational institutions. This empowers students to become responsible stewards of the environment and prepares them to actively participate in environmental movements in the future.

Challenges Faced by Environmental Movements

Despite their achievements, environmental movements face several challenges that can hinder their progress. Some of the common challenges include:

  • Opposition and Criticism: Environmental movements often face opposition and criticism from individuals, industries, and policymakers who prioritize economic growth over environmental concerns. This can lead to conflicts and hinder the implementation of necessary changes.
  • Funding Issues: Many environmental movements rely on donations and grants to sustain their operations. Limited funding can restrict their ability to carry out extensive campaigns, research, and advocacy efforts.
  • Balancing Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability: Finding a balance between economic development and environmental sustainability is a complex challenge. Environmental movements strive to promote sustainable practices while acknowledging the need for economic progress.

Strategies for Effective Environmental Activism

To maximize the impact of environmental activism, several strategies can be employed:

  • Collaboration and Networking: Environmental movements can achieve greater success through collaboration and networking with like-minded organizations, individuals, and communities. Building alliances amplifies their voices and strengthens their collective efforts.
  • Utilizing Social Media and Technology: In the digital age, social media platforms and technology provide powerful tools for spreading awareness, mobilizing support, and organizing campaigns. Environmental activists can utilize these platforms to engage a wider audience and generate momentum for change.
  • Advocacy and Public Awareness Campaigns: Effective advocacy involves targeted campaigns that raise awareness, influence public opinion, and put pressure on policymakers to take action. Public awareness campaigns, such as documentaries, educational programs, and community events, can engage individuals and inspire them to take environmental action.


Environmental movements and activism have been instrumental in driving positive change, raising awareness, and advocating for environmental sustainability. CTET EVS plays a crucial role in integrating environmental education into the curriculum and nurturing future generations of environmentally conscious individuals. By understanding the significance of environmental movements, supporting the efforts of activists, and implementing sustainable practices, we can contribute to a greener and more sustainable future.


  1. Q: How can individuals contribute to environmental movements?

    • A: Individuals can contribute by making sustainable lifestyle choices, supporting environmental organizations, participating in local initiatives, and raising awareness among their communities.
  2. Q: Are environmental movements effective in bringing about change?

    • A: Yes, environmental movements have a proven track record of influencing policies, raising awareness, and driving positive change. However, continuous efforts are necessary to address ongoing environmental challenges.
  3. Q: How can teachers integrate environmental education into their classrooms?

    • A: Teachers can incorporate environmental topics into various subjects, organize field trips to natural areas, invite guest speakers, and engage students in hands-on activities related to the environment.
  4. Q: What role does youth activism play in environmental movements?

    • A: Youth activism, exemplified by movements like Fridays for Future, brings fresh perspectives, energy, and urgency to environmental causes. Young activists have a significant impact in raising awareness and demanding action.
  5. Q: How can individuals stay updated on environmental movements and initiatives?

    • A: Individuals can stay informed by following environmental organizations, subscribing to newsletters, attending local events, and engaging with online platforms dedicated to environmental news and updates.
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